Units in Arbor¶
Note
This is a work in progress. The near-term goal is to make this coverage complete but expect some exceptions. Notably, the interfaces of individual mechanisms are not yet integrated, since NMODL files – despite explicitly specifying units – do not make good use of the feature.
A large part of the interface of Arbor – both in C++ and Python – is covered by units of measurement. This gives the API a way to communicate the intended units of parameters and return values, and users can largely use their preferred system of units, as automatic conversion is provided. For performance reasons, this extends to the outermost layer only, after which Arbor uses its own internal system of measurement.
We leverage the units library published by LLNL.
Arbor is focused on SI units, and we provide the following presets for both the C++ and Python modules.
Dimension |
Unit |
---|---|
Temperature |
Kelvin Celsius |
Length |
m cm mm um nm |
Time |
s ms us ns |
Resistance |
Ohm kOhm MOhm |
Conductivity |
S mS uS |
Current |
A mA uA nA pA |
Potential |
V mV |
Frequency |
Hz kHz |
Capacity |
F mF uF nF pF |
Area |
m2 cm2 mm2 um2 nm2 |
Charge |
C |
Mol |
mol |
Molarity |
M = mol/l mM |
Angle |
rad deg |
Further units may be derived from existing ones by mean of multiplication and division with the obvious semantics, the existing metric prefixes, or by extending the catalogue of units via the underlying units library.
Prefix |
Scale |
Prefix |
Scale |
---|---|---|---|
pico |
1e-12 |
kilo |
1e3 |
nano |
1e-9 |
mega |
1e6 |
micro |
1e-6 |
giga |
1e9 |
milli |
1e-3 |
||
centi |
1e-2 |
Parameters are passed into Arbor via a quantity
, which comprises a value and
a unit. We construct a quantity by multiplication of a scalar value by a unit.
Multiplication of two quantities will result in the pointwise product of the
values and units, as one would expect.
# two kilometers, dimension is the length
l = 2 * km
# three kilometers, but with the scaling factored out
s = 3 * kilo * m
# multiplication of two lengths gives an area
a = l * s
# is now 6 square kilometers
Units and quantities work intuitively and largely the same across C++ and Python, but we provide some details below.
C++¶
Units are defined in the units
namespace and exist at runtime, since we
need to cater to dynamical language bindings. In the units::literals
namespace, we find user-defined literals for all units above, e.g. 10_mV
.
Integral powers of units are constructed using the .pow(int)
member, e.g.
m2 = m.pow(2)
. Units and quantities can be converted to and from strings
using the std::string to_string(const T&)
and T from_string_cast(const std::string&)
functions. Conversion between different units is done like this
namespace U = arb::units;
// membrane capacitance in SI
auto c_m = 42*U::F/U::m.pow(2) // same as 42*U::F*U::m.pow(-2)
// convert to a different unit and extract value
auto c_m_ = c_m.value_as(U::uF*U::cm.pow(-2))
// invalid conversions result in NaN values, so check
if (std::isnan(c_m_)) throw std::domain_error("Invalid value");
however, Arbor does this whenever values pass its interface.
Python¶
Units are defined in the units
sub-module. Integral powers of units are
constructed using the **
operator, e.g. m2 = m ** 2
. Units and
quantities can be converted to a string using the str()
function.
Conversion between different units is done like this
from arbor import units as U
from math import isnan
# membrane capacitance in SI
c_m = 42*U.F/U.m**2
# convert to a different unit and extract value
c_m_ = c_m.value_as(U.uF*U.cm**-2)
# invalid conversions result in NaN values, so check
if isnan(c_m_):
raise ValueError("Invalid value")
however, Arbor does this whenever values pass its interface.
- class arbor.units.unit¶
Describes a unit of measurement.